高中英语短文改错技巧(1)

2019-08-21 13:46:03

体裁和句式:
体裁以记叙文为主,句子结构以简单句为主过渡到以复合句和并列句为主。从近几年考试题来看,短文改错的句子平均长度趋于平稳,由于多数句子不是只占一行,所以只有读完整个句子,仔细分析,才能发现错误、纠正错误。但几乎每篇都有一个长达20多个词的句子。这就需要考生在这个句子中判断出二到三个地方有错或无错,增加了试题的难度。
归纳短文改错错误类型:
(一) 词法的测试
1.名词:主要是查名词是否可数,与其修饰语是否一致。
eg: 1) I have many hobby, such as football, sing, listen music.
Hobby是可数名词,在这要用复数形式;playing football是一项运动,football只是一种球; sing和listen to 要用动名词形式。
2) Do exercises do good to our healthy. exercise作运动讲是不可数名词,do exercise作主语要用动名词形式,谓动用单数;healthy是形容词, 这里要用名词形式。
3) Reading books is one of my hobby.
one of 后的名词应用复数形式。
2. 代词:对于短文中出现的每一个代词都要查一下它所指代的
内容及在句中的作用,注意其数、格、词性是否正确和前后是否一致,常考的代词包括人称代词、指示代词、反身代词、关系代词及疑问代词等。
1)He drove too fast, and the police stopped her.
前面提到的是he而后面却用her来代,故应将her改为him.
2)This is the best film which I have ever seen.
先行词前有最高级修饰应用关系代词that 而不是which。
3. 冠词:英语中只有三个冠词,但用起来却很复杂,在短文改
错中,错误不外乎该用冠词时没有用,不该用时却用了;该用an用了a,该用a(n)却用了the.
1) I meant to write letter and tell you all the things…
letter为可数名词,故write后应加a.
2) I like playing the football. 去the
3) He is a honest boy. a改为an
4. 介词:检查介词主要是查介词与动词、形容词、名词的搭配,
介词惯用词组等是否正确。
1) I am writing to thank you with your kind help.
thank sb. for sth.为固定搭配,故应将with 改为for.
2) …I’m the happiest in all.
此句想表达的意思是“我是所有人中最高兴的”。故应将in改为 of.
3) Under the help of my father, I … under 改为 with
4) He went to Beijing in next Sunday. in 改为on
5. 形容词、副词:形容词、副词的误用主要指在该用形容词的地方用了副词,该用副词的地方用了形容词。改错行中出现形容词或副词时就要仔细分析该形容词或副词修饰什么,形式是否正确,是原级、比较级还是最高级。形容词、副词误
用也是常考的改错项目之一。
1) I had not interest in English .interest是名词,应用形容词no来修饰,而not是副词,副词不能修饰名
2) These are the happier girls I’ve ever seen.(NMET2007)
此处有I’ve ever seen限定,应用最高级,故happier应改为 happiest.
3) You can borrow a book very easy. easy 改为easily.
4) These books are very worth reading. 用well 修饰
6. 连词:短文改错中出现连词就要判断连词用的是否正确,是否符合句子意思;连接的是词还是句子,是否符合逻辑关系。此外如果是平行结构就要注意前后时态、语态、词性一致问题
平行结构常借助与并列连词and , or , but , not only…but also…, …not…but…, either…or…, neither …nor…, as well as等。
1) As it has been raining these days, so we have decided to put off our sports meeting.
由于前句有As引导原因状语从句,因此后句不能再用so,故应把so 去掉。
2) The population is growing, but the earth must support too many people.
根据上下文意思判断,前后两个并列分句不存在意义上的折,
所以but应改为and或so.这是典型的并列连词误用。
7. 动词:动词错误在短文改错中所占比重最大,它所涉及的错误包括动词的时态、语态错误;易混动词的用法错误; 动词的第三人称单数错误;动词的非谓语形式,以及动词的句型搭配错误等。在改错题中,动词方面的考查比例较大。
1) 动词的时态、语态错误

a. I will write again and send you the photos we take together.
take photos动作发生在过去,应用过去时.
b. The book you borrowed from the library should returned in five days.
根据本句意义,should后应加上been,构成被动语态。
c. In school, I often playing football for my friends.
playing改为 play; for 改为with
2) 易混动词使用错误
a. I persuaded him to stop smoking, but he didn’t listen.
persuade 意为“说服”,强调成功的结果,而根据下句 he didn’t listen可知,劝说并没有成功,故应改persuaded为 advised.
b. You please rise your hands.
rise是不及物动词,而raise是及物动词,所以举手应用raise your hands.这属于及物动词与不及物动词的误用。
3) 非谓语动词使用错误
a. We are looking forward to see you on the birthday party.
look forward to 中的to是介词,应加动名词,将see改为seeing.
b. I’m sorry I keep you wait for a long time .I got caught in the traffic.
在任何情况下keep均和doing连用,如keep doing sth.;
keep sb. (sth).doing sth. ;keep …from doing… 等.
c. I’d like to your pen friend, and get to know more about your country.
to后加be。因其后是名词,而不是动词原形,不能直接用to.
8. 词语固定搭配:
主要考查介词与动词、名词、形容词的固定搭配;副词、动词的固定搭配;及物动词后多介词或副词以及不及物动词后少介词,英语中的一些固定句型与习惯搭配等。
1) My teacher advised me to keep my diary.
keep a diary是固定搭配,意思是“写日记”.
2) In my surprise, he did very well in his previous job.
To one’s surprise 是固定搭配
3) I thought that was dull to watch a game…(NMET2005)
此题考查it的功能,It + be + adj. + to do为固定结构。
4) …the activities are not only enjoyable and also helpful.解析:not only… but also…为固定结构,故将and 改为but.
5) I have no difficulty learn maths.
have difficulty (in) doing sth.为固定结构
6) He spends too much time play games.
spend some time (in) doing sth.为固定结构